There are literally hundreds of peer reviewed articles about wild apple leaves, but they all have a fatal flaw. They’re all about in vitro studies in a test tube or animal studies in lab animals, like mice or rats bred or fed for a specific physical defect. Moreover, they are all about just one specific compound of apple tree fibre. Phloridzin dihydrate gets all the attention, and for good reason. It cures Type 2 diabetes, several types of cancer, and helps improve memory. There is nothing about the powerful anthelmintic properties I found by using the whole leaf, powdered in a blender and strained to make it pack tighter in Size 0 capsules. I also add pectic enzyme to make it less spongy. It compacts 3 or 4 times when you load the capsule maker with it otherwise. The pectic enzyme also makes it dig into the biofilm deeper where more helminths, not to mention other microbes and pathogens, are hiding out. The whole apple leaf is greater than the sum of the parts, from personal experience, and you will just have to take my word for it. Several spectacular properties are not even recognized or reviewed at all by anybody.