Cotinine is the metabolite of nicotine used to track tobacco smoking exposure, but may be so much more than that. Researchers at WSU et al link it to anthelmintic effect on a study group in the Congo. They noticed that tobacco users were healthier. I suspect that is why tobacco smokers get a supercharged effect from Wild Apple Leaves. It is something to think about because it flies in the face of the medical mantra that goes on ad nauseum about the evils of smoking. However, it does provide a path to resolution of the smoker’s paradox of WAL treatment. The Congo group suffered from intestinal helminthiasis, but WAL exposes a second unknown dermal helminthiasis on top of that.